○ 1944 : ANTI-FASCIST REBELS AND OTHER VICTIMS OF NAZIS
During the Second World War, the Northern Italian theatre saw the Nazi-Fascist army adopt a retreating strategy to delay the advance of the Anglo-American formations, however, since September 8, 1943 partisan brigades played a significant role.
In fact, the Italian partisans intended to weaken the defensive structure put in place by the Germans by communicating to the Allies enemy positions, but also conducted proper military operations. During the summer and early autumn of 1944, following the Allied commander in Italy, British General Harold Alexander’s appeal in a radio broadcast, for Italians to kill Germans «wherever you encounter them», the attacks of the partisans intensified.
In response to Alexander, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, commander of the German Army in Italy, issued a decree «against the armed bands of rebels». By virtue of this notice, in every part of Italy the Nazi-Fascists put in place dire reprisals against civilians, justifying the destruction of houses and killing of hostages.
There were no active partisan military formations in Monghidoro, nevertheless some anti-fascists collaborated with the partisan Resistance by providing news on the activities of the Germans or performing acts of sabotage. On August 2, 1944, a German coach was detonated in Piamaggio, near Monghidoro, killing two soldiers. The next day, again in Piamaggio, the German army telephone wires were cut.
A few days later, August 8, on the information given by a local fascist, a professional barber, Domenico Enrico Calzolari, known as ei Barberîn, was arrested in Monghidoro. It was later learned that he was part of the 62nd Brigade Garibaldi Red Shirts. In his shop, the barber received and sent messages that le staffette (the runners), boys and women beyond suspicion, took to the commanders of partisan brigades.
Following the arrest, Calzolari was taken to Ca’ di Giorgio, a big hotel where the Germans had their headquarters. On August 11, 1944, after enduring days of torture, the barber, together with three partisans from Monzuno, the brothers Gino, Giovanni and Pietro Musolesi walked through an eerily silent town and shot in the old cattle market of Monghidoro.